UK - A further 3% of UK private sector defined benefit pension schemes closed to new members in the past year, the latest research from the National Association of Pension Funds has revealed.
And the survey revealed 21% of the remaining DB schemes open to new members were considering switching to defined contribution and 10% were looking at how to reduce costs or risks.
It also revealed 5% of pension schemes had obtained a full buyout quote and 10% had obtained a partial quote.
The NAPF said schemes were spending on average 74% more on levies, 20% more on fund management and 19% more on advisers' fees.
Joanne Segars, chief executive of the NAPF, said: "Government, regulators and standard setters must take action to ensure the regulatory framework encourages good quality pension provision and continued employer commitment.
"This must include ensuring the impact of personal accounts and auto-enrolment in 2012 does not place unnecessary and unwelcome additional administrative costs on schemes and that the government sticks to its commitment to deliver a lighter touch regulatory regime for workplace pensions."
The NAPF's survey showed the DC pensions landscape was also changing.
It found average contributions stood at 11% - with 7% from the employer, more than twice the statutory employer minimum from 2012.
Employee contributions increased from 4% in 2007 to 4.3% this year.
The survey received responses from 327 NAPF fund members, though not all responded to every question. Nearly all respondents operate DB schemes and most also operate DC schemes. Some 502 schemes were covered by the survey.
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